Lactobacillus GG (LGG) is the world’s most clinically studied probiotic. LGG was first isolated in the late ‘80s from the faecal sample of a healthy adult by the researchers Gordon and Gorbach, hence the ‘GG’ moniker.
During the early studies and subsequently confirmed by multiple others, LGG is known to withstand gastric acidity and bile salts and effectively adheres to the gastrointestinal mucosa. LGG’s ability to resist gastric acidity and bile salts is a consequence of the ability of the bacterium to produce anti-stress proteins that give it greater survival capacity in intestinal transit after oral intake. Adherence to the intestinal wall is also favoured by the presence on the bacterial wall of exopolysaccharides rich in galactose residues and the presence of specific adhesive pili.
LGG has a well-studied effect on the immune system which is explained by the stimulation and production of different cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and a particular protein, p40, secreted by LGG cells that can reduce the inflammatory state and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, LGG is well understood, characterised and it is known to have several useful anti-inflammatory effects.
LACTOBACILLUS GG AND DYSBIOSIS
On the base of these and other functional properties that distinguish it from other probiotics, LGG can achieve significant results in the different situations characterised by microbiota dysbiosis. Dysbiosis occurs when bacterial homeostasis is disrupted because of an imbalance of microbiota composition, a change in metabolic activities and an altered distribution of bacteria in the intestine. Based on these elements, dysbiosis shows 3 characteristics:
- Numeric loss of beneficial bacteria,
- Overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria,
- Loss of bacterial diversity.
In most cases, these 3 types of dysbiosis occur simultaneously. A typical example of dysbiosis is seen after the use of antibiotics that cause a dysregulation of normal bacterial flora, with an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic and toxic microorganisms, leading to a rapid and significant drop in taxonomic wealth, uniformity, and diversity.
The mechanisms of action of LGG such as enhancement of the epithelial barrier, increased adhesion to intestinal mucosa, concomitant inhibition of pathogen adhesion, competitive exclusion of pathogenic microorganisms, production of anti-micro-organism substances, and modulation of the immune system are the reasons why it is so frequently selected by practitioners as the number one candidate probiotic for the prevention and treatment of every cause of dysbiosis.
We have been recommending LGG for over 20 years and are pleased to announce a significant breakthrough in value and subsequent benefit for use in short- and long-term care. From children to seniors and all in between, multiple applications are either well recognised or are becoming clearer as data sets increase.
Whilst numerous other bacterial strains are coming to market with narrow ranges of function and focus, LGG remains a primary point of intervention for gastrointestinal dysbiotic events.